Owner: Alistair Stewart



GRANDPA is the finality (consensus) algorithm for Polkadot. Here we first present a high-level overview, as an “extended abstract”. Details are presented in the full paper directly below that.

We also have an alternative version of the full paper available on arxiv, which is more polished and a bit shorter.

What is implemented in the Polkadot software and deployed in practise, we refer to as “Polite GRANDPA” which includes optimisations required for efficient real-world performance in practise. These are not covered in the papers below for brevity, but we go into the details later here on this page. The high-level concepts and design principles remain the same as GRANDPA.

GRANDPA Abstract paper

GRANDPA Full paper